Homosexuality's History and Cultural Impact in Spain
In 2016, Spain is statistically the most tolerant country of homosexuality. But how did Spain get here? The story of becoming the most tolerant country is complex and still unfolding today.
Today Spain is statistically the most accepting country of homosexuality (“The Global Divide on Homosexuality”). However the journey to where Spain is now is an interesting one. Spain wasn’t always as accepting of homosexuality as it is today. The most noticeable historical contrast from today’s views is Spain’s period under the dictatorship of Francisco Franco. During this time, from 1939 to 1975, homosexuals were criminalized and horribly mistreated throughout the nation (“Timeline of LGBT Rights and Social Acceptance”). Compare that with today when gay marriage is legal and much of the stigma that used to surround homosexuality is erased.
Spain is an interesting case in that in about 75 years, the nation shifted so drastically in its opinions of accepting homosexuality. What accounts for Spain’s ability to rebound from prejudice to tolerance so extremely well? Especially when taking into account that for 25 years from 1954 to 1979 homosexuality was an illegal, criminal offense this feat is very impressive (“Timeline of LGBT Rights and Social Acceptance”). To answer this question I will be looking at what Spain was like for homosexuals before Franco came to power. I will also see how Franco’s rise and fall impacted the gay community. I’ll look at the legalization of gay marriage in Spain, its supporters, its non-supporters, and its effects.
We also need to take a look at Spain in 2016. Even with all the progress that Spain has made in the last century, there are still Spanish citizens who don’t think homosexuality should be accepted by society. Although very much in the minority, there has been a rise of homophobic hate crimes in Spain; indicating that even the most tolerant of nations still have work to do when it comes to battling discrimination.
As was mentioned in the previous section, Spain as a nation has had a complete turnaround of views when comparing opinions of today with those of just 50 years ago. Let’s look a bit closer at the timeline of attitudes about homophobia in Spain to see how and why they’ve changed. This is an integral part of understanding what makes Spain’s path to tolerance unique.
The source of initial animosity towards homosexuality in Spain is one that appears again and again in the fight for equality of the Spanish LGBT community: the Catholic Church. The Church’s influence made sodomy an act punishable under law, indirectly making homosexuality illegal (“A Brief History of Homosexuality and LGBTQ rights in Spain”). A turning point occurred when the Enlightenment era took hold. With the Enlightenment came many new ideas including advances in science, philosophy, and politics. The Enlightenment brought recognition of individual rights and freedoms; one of these being the right of peoples to not have such a personal part of their life interfered with by government. Sodomy was decriminalized in 1882, an early first step towards the acceptance of homosexuality by society (“A Brief History of Homosexuality and LGBTQ rights in Spain”).
Many years later in 1931, a big change for Spain occurred when a new government was formed out of necessity because the king of Spain, King Alfonso XIII, fled the country. The new government was called the Second Republic. The new republic was much more liberal than the government before and created a constitution which established “freedom of speech, freedom of association, extended voting privileges to women, allowed divorce, and stripped Spanish nobility of special legal status” (“The Second Spanish Republic”). Not only was the power of the Spanish nobility reduced, the Spanish Catholic Church lost power and influence as well. The shift to a more liberal government was a great thing for the LGBT community of Spain. Homosexuality was viewed much more positively for the years between 1931 and 1939. In fact, during this time it was even believed that homosexuality was linked to higher levels of creativity; a very positive outlook for homosexuality as opposed to the more disgraceful views of years prior (“Timeline of LGBT Rights and Social Acceptance”).
Unfortunately for the gay community in Spain, in 1939 Francisco Franco came to power as a result of the Spanish Civil War. Franco had much more conservative views than the Second Republic. He abolished divorce and abortion, and restored power to the Spanish Catholic Church in an effort to bring Spain back to the country it was before the instatement of the Second Republic. In addition Catholicism was made the official religion of Spain (“Timeline of LGBT Rights and Social Acceptance”). Under Franco, homosexuality went from being something acceptable to something offensive and dangerous. A big setback for the LGBT community of Spain occurred in 1954 when the Vagrancy Act made homosexuality a criminal offense for which homosexuals could be sent to prison and face mental and physical abuse (“Timeline of LGBT Rights and Social Acceptance”). Many homosexuals resolved to hiding their sexuality in order to remain safe.
In 1971, with Franco still in power, the Law of Dangerousness and Social Rehabilitation was passed. This declared homosexuality a mental illness rather than a criminal act. Homosexuals were either sent to prison or correctional camps. In both cases, they were subject to rehabilitation to be “cured” of their homosexual desires. Thousands of homosexuals, mostly men, were sent to these camps and endured psychological and even physical torture for months or years to reinforce “normal” sexual desires (“Timeline of LGBT Rights and Social Acceptance”).
In late 1975, after Franco’s death, Spain was appointed a new king and later, a new prime minister. The new prime minister, Adolfo Suarez Gonzalez, enforced many new reforms such as free elections, the freedom of religion, and many others (“Timeline of LGBT Rights and Social Acceptance”). Although homosexuality was not officially decriminalized yet, in 1977 the first gay pride demonstration was held in Barcelona. It was violently suppressed by police forces, but still served as a groundbreaking event in the history of the Spanish LGBT community. Two years later, another landmark occurred when homosexuality was officially decriminalized. Although homosexuality was still stigmatized by society, homosexuals “could no longer be imprisoned for being gay, and those who had been previously arrested for being gay were finally released” (“Timeline of LGBT Rights and Social Acceptance”).
The next, and perhaps greatest step towards equality for homosexuals in Spain happened in 2005. It was when the Spanish parliament voted to legalize gay marriage and grant equal rights in adopting children to gay couples. At the time of this law homophobia was still prevalent in Spain, particularly among older generations and the Spanish Catholic Church. The then Prime Minister of Spain, Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero, greatly supported the law, emphasizing that it was an “already existing human right, rather than a threat to the institution of marriage and family” (“Timeline of LGBT Rights and Social Acceptance”). As further evidence that support of legalizing gay marriage was not unanimous throughout Spain, seven years later in 2012 a challenge was brought to Spain’s Constitutional Court which sought to overturn the passage of the law in 2005. Despite the Catholic Church’s support, the gay marriage laws were not overturned which came as a huge relief to LGBT citizens (“Timeline of LGBT Rights and Social Acceptance”).
A handful of other laws have been passed since 2012 which impact the LGBT community, but none so great as that which legalized gay marriage. I will discuss these other laws in later sections, but since the legalization of gay marriage was such a big step for not only homosexuals in Spain, but also around the world, we’ll look into more detail about the gay marriage law in Spain and its impact.
In 2016, Spain is one of, if not the most, tolerant countries towards homosexuality. Same-sex marriage was legalized in Spain in 2005, a whole decade before it was in the United States. And a survey in 2013 reported that 88 percent of Spanish people believe that homosexuality should be accepted by society. In the United States, that number was only 60 percent (“The Global Divide on Homosexuality”).
Despite the large majority of Spanish citizens that supported the legalization of gay marriage, there have been and continue to be Spanish groups that oppose equal rights for homosexual couples. In 2005 when the Spanish government wanted to pass the law to legalize same-sex marriage and allow same-sex couples to adopt children, about 500,000 Spanish citizens marched in protest. The majority of the protesters were Catholic, and did not support the law because they felt that homosexual marriage would destroy the sanctity of heterosexual marriage. Others took issue with the law granting the right of homosexual couples to adopt children, fearing that the children would be bullied in school. The protest was more religious than political in nature, with twenty Roman Catholic bishops at the head of the march, and no political party stating that the march reflected their views (“Spain Revolts Against Gay Marriage Law”). The opposition to legalization of gay marriage was not only seen in this one isolated incident. The videos below show other examples of both opposition and agreement with the passage of the marriage equality law in Spain.
The video above shows some examples of Spanish citizens who were against the legalization of gay marriage. The video, published by the Associated Press to YouTube on July 21, 2015, opens with a clip of protesters holding signs saying “Matrimonio = Hombre Y Mujer” which translates to “Marriage = Man and Woman.” The video continues to provide soundbites of interviews with people about their views of gay marriage. When a law gets passed in a foreign country, especially one which promotes equality, it is easy to assume that everyone in the country agrees with it. However, in Spain this was not the case. This video provides great examples of Spanish citizens who did not approve of the law. For instance, there is one man who claims he is “for the Christian matrimony.” He goes on to say “that’s what’ve learnt in my family, with my parents. I think homosexuals should be respected, but I think that matrimony is something else.” He demonstrates a view which many other Spanish protesters agreed with. On the contrary, video also provides a clip of an interview with a man who is pro-marriage equality. He says, “the general feeling is joy. Finally we have the same right as everybody, we’re not second class citizens. We have the right to marry and to adopt.” He is speaks on behalf of gay Spanish citizens who of course support the law.
The Associated Press released another video which shows more clips of people in support of the legalization of gay marriage. Also published to YouTube on July 21, 2015, this video is interesting because it shows video footage of the Spanish Parliament at the time that the vote legalizing gay marriage was announced. There are clips of supporters of the law looking overjoyed as well as interview clips. One man says, “It’s the happiest day of my life, and for so many women and men who for such a long time were discriminated, so it’s a very happy day when the homosexual dignity was recognized, when the plurality and diversity were recognized in this country.”
However, not all the soundbites are this celebratory. The final one, featuring the leader of the Partido Popular, expresses the opposition that he and his party have towards the law. He says, “Our position is very clear, we have the same position that the vast majority of worldwide countries have, except for two (The Netherlands and Belgium) countries. The matrimony throughout the history has been a regulation and an institution between a man and a woman.” This stance of the Partido Popular represents views concurrent with many Spanish citizens when the results of Spanish parliament’s vote were announced. Despite the opposition of the Partido Popular, the most influential man in the process of making this proposition a reality is shown in this video as well. Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero, the Spanish Prime Minister in 2005, states his views that “Today the Spanish society returns [gays] the respect they deserve, recognize their rights, restore their dignity, affirm their identity and gives them back their freedom.”
Although Prime Minister Zapatero clearly believed that he was doing the right thing for his citizens by promoting the legalization of gay marriage, his decision also had some negative effects on the country’s unity. Since a notable percentage of the population predictably opposed the law, its passage led to much division within the country. One example of such division was prompted by the Partido Popular which, as mentioned above, opposed the marriage equality law. The conservative party gave its members permission to not marry gay couples, effectively promoting illegal discrimination (“Dear America...”). The party guarded themselves against criticism for their discriminatory policies by claiming that the marriage equality law was unconstitutional; a claim which was not resolved until the Spanish Constitutional Court reaffirmed the law seven years later in 2012. (“Dear America…”)
Although nowadays the opposition of the Partido Popular today is not as strong, the Roman Catholic Church of Spain still, to this day, disputes the right of homosexuals to marry. An argument that was present in 2005 when the law was passed still lingers. That argument is that same-sex unions should be recognized, but should not be called “marriages.” (“Dear America…”) Perhaps it’s true that this would have led to less division within Spain, but we’ll never know for sure. What the passage of the marriage equality law in Spain tells us for sure is that passing legislation that promotes equality doesn’t make discrimination disappear. It’s certainly an important step; nevertheless, discrimination still lingers in Spain even over a decade after the legalization of gay marriage.
In 2013, a survey by the Pew Research Center cited Spain as the most tolerant nation of homosexuality, with 88% of its citizens believing that it should be accepted by society. Despite this level of acceptance, there is still work that needs to be done to encourage acceptance and equality of homosexuality in Spain. In 2014, 40 percent of Spain’s total hate crimes for the year were connected to the sexual orientation of the victim (“Homophobia is the most common hate crime in Spain”). To many, homophobic hate crimes are not a new phenomenon; and in fact, already a variety of steps have been taken to help eliminate it.
This video explains the rise of homophobic hate crimes on a worldwide scale. The United Nations’ high commissioner for human rights, Navi Pillay, calls attention to the fact that homophobia is no different than sexism, racism and other forms of discrimination. In fact, the only difference is that while governments recognize the injustice of these forms, homophobia is much more neglected.
If we go from this worldwide scale to a closer look at Spain, we’ll see that unlike many other countries in the world, Spain’s government has indeed taken very big steps against homophobia through legislation. Let’s take, for example, the so-called anti-homophobia legislation of Catalonia. The government of Catalonia passed the bill on October 2nd 2014. It states that people who commit hate crimes against gays, lesbians, bisexuals and transsexuals, could face fines up to €14,000. This considerable fine is representative that the government of Catalonia is very much trying to take a stand against homophobia in Spain. In response to criticisms about the enormous fines of the law, Anna Simó, a member of the leftist Catalan government, stated that “Without sanctions, this law would be a mere statement of intent. This is meant as a deterrent.” This is a great example of how this legislation demands attention and respect (“Catalonia passes historic anti-homophobia law”).
The law was heavily supported by leftist political groups, like the Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya (ERC), of which Anna Simó is part, and the Socialists’ Party of Catalonia. In fact the Secretary-General of the Socialists’ Party of Catalonia, Miquel Iceta was one of the strongest defenders of the law. An openly gay politician himself, he was quoted in the Spanish press saying “I feel furious when someone appears to deny or play down the discrimination that we gays have suffered or run the risk of suffering … This is not a group of people working undercover to achieve illegitimate goals. This is a group working to defend the rights of everyone.”(“Catalonia passes controversial anti-homophobia legislation”)
His views do not express the views of all of Spain, however. The more conservative, Popular Party (PP) in Spain, did not approve of this legislation largely in part due to the section of the law explaining that the person accused of homophobic hate crimes must prove his innocence. This reversal of the presumption of innocence until proven guilty didn’t sit well with the Catholic base of Spain either. Many bishops in Catalonia expressed reservations because of this part of the law (“Catalonia passes historic anti-homophobia law”).
Legislation can certainly help with the development of equality among the LGBT community. However, legally mandated equality does not equal social equality. Homophobia in Spain still manifests itself in many forms which do not have the threat of €14,000 fines to protect victims. One example is in the workplace. According to research done by ESADE business school in Spain, nearly 60 percent of LGBT people have experienced discrimination in the workplace in one form or another. Many workers chose not to disclose their sexual orientation because of the threat of discrimination (“60% of homosexuals suffer discrimination at work”). Recognition of the prejudices LGBT people experience in the workplace has led to the development of a non-profit foundation called Workplace Pride. Based in Amsterdam, Workplace Pride supports inclusion of LGBT people within the workplace on an international scale. They hold conferences and support research that focuses on how to eliminate intolerance and make the workplace a more accepting environment (“About Workplace Pride”).
Having a foundation like Workplace Pride is no doubt an excellent means towards equality. Some groups have taken a stance against homophobia with a different approach: social media and televised campaigning. These mediums are more accessible to the public and for this reason may have a greater sphere of influence than the more niche groups like Workplace Pride. In the next section I’ll look at some campaigns against homophobia that have impacted Spain.
A look at the history of Spanish homosexual acceptance can perhaps be seen as reflective of its modern-day situation. In the present day, just as when the same-sex marriage law was passed over ten years ago, there are also those who support tolerance and those who refuse to. Even though well over the majority of the Spanish population believes homosexuality should be accepted by society there is a growing prevalence of homophobic hate crimes happening, especially around Spain’s capital, Madrid. Some believe that homophobia is not a new problem in Spain, but rather that the reason it appears to be on the rise is because people are reporting discrimination more frequently. This increase in reports of hate crimes is encouraged since with more reports of discrimination the Spanish government can better institute plans to fight it (“Homophobic attacks rising in Madrid region, says rights group”).
The video below is a product of this fight against homophobic discrimination. It was created by La Federación Estatal de Lesbianas, Gais, Transexuales y Bisexuales (The State Federation of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Peoples) and a social campaigning agency called Chocolate Social. The agency was contracted by the FELGTB to make a video to spread awareness about hate crimes based on sexual orientation. The video is part of the #ConLaVozBienAlta (#SpeakUpLoud) campaign, a campaign designed to encourage victims to report discrimination. Although the video was posted on YouTube in September of 2015, the hashtag #ConLaVozBienAlta is still used today on Twitter in tweets about homophobic hate. The video has Spanish subtitles, since it was made for viewers in Spain, but when viewed on YouTube there are closed captions in English as well. It was used primarily through the internet as opposed to a television campaign.
In the video, a gay couple from the United States, ask Spanish people to translate a letter written to them from a hostel owner. The letter is a prop, written for the purpose of the campaign. The video depicts Spanish people’s responses to this letter which includes language of strong homophobic discrimination. Its goal is to raise awareness about discrimination and homophobia in Spain, and to encourage victims to report instances of it. The video very effectively achieves this goal. Despite the facts and statistics provided at the end of the video, its primary rhetorical appeal is emotional. This is evident in the focus on the reactions of people reading the hateful letter and on the video’s music which has a very powerful impact on the viewer. The creators of the video, Chocolate Social, did a wonderful job of putting the video together in such a way that it creates a call to action. The reactions of people in the video, telling the tourists to stay at a different hostel and report the discrimination to the police are very powerful and would encourage a viewer to not be a bystander if he or she were to witness this type of discrimination. The video goes from a light-hearted to serious tone as the readers begin to grasp the derogatory content of the letter, further emphasizing that hate crimes are a serious issue in Spain and should not be taken lightly. Since this is a campaign within Spain, its audience is the Spanish public. However, it’s interesting that the film producers decided to use foreigners as the targets of discrimination. I believe this was done to subtly encourage Spaniards to consider how their country is perceived by foreigners. Since tourism is an enormous source of revenue for Spain, the views of foreigners are particularly important.
Another campaign against homophobia was launched during the 2014 World Cup in Brazil called #StopTheSlurs. Though the campaign was not launched in Spain, it still affects the Spanish population since Spain was one of the many countries whose team participated in the World Cup. Additionally, with the pride that Spain as a nation takes in its soccer teams, it’s likely that much of the Spanish population was watching the #StopTheSlurs commercials which were broadcasted during the soccer games.
#StopTheSlurs specifically targets the anti-LGBT language that is chanted by crowds of fans in soccer stadiums. Even though not everyone watching the 2014 World Cup was watching from the stadiums, the many LGBT people watching the broadcasted games from home could feel not only insulted, but unsafe by the homophobic language that occurs during the games. GLAAD, a communications agency which focuses on creating print, online, and televised media that advocates for the equality of the LGBT community, is the organization behind this video of the #StopTheSlurs campaign which aired during the World Cup. The commercial is very short, showing a family watching the world cup game together. The family rejoices over what a viewer could assume to be a goal scored for their team. Both homosexual and heterosexual couples are shown kissing in celebration. This is followed by the powerful words “The game we love has no room for hate.” The #StopTheSlurs hashtag is shown, then one more gay couple kissing, after which one of the men says to the camera “Yes to winning, no to homophobia.”
The #StopTheSlurs campaign was received by a large audience through many mediums. The commercial shown above was broadcasted during the World Cup, but it was also made available and sharing of it was encouraged on YouTube. Furthermore the hashtag itself was promoted via Twitter. This use of many channels helps to reach more people and likely led to the campaign having a greater impact.
Spain has had a remarkable path to becoming the extremely tolerant country it is today. While it’s true that there is still discrimination and homophobia in the country, it’s important to put that in perspective of Spain’s turbulent history. When taking into account the power and homophobic influence that Francisco Franco had during his 36 year long rule as dictator of Spain, it’s truly impressive that as early as 2005 Spain has such a contrasting view evidenced by the legalization of gay marriage. Compare Spain to the United States which never had an oppressive dictator, but took till 2015 to legalize gay marriage and the stark contrast is clear. An interesting viewpoint questions if Spain’s determined and continued efforts to fight against homophobia were actually strengthened by Franco’s repressive rule. Maybe after Spanish citizens were subject his oppressive laws for decades, once he was out of power they felt a strong urge to erase his place in Spain’s history. This included repealing laws passed by Franco, uniting despite social divides he endorsed, and reinventing the Spanish cultural identity into something distinctly different than what Franco wanted Spain to be.
The impact Franco’s rule certainly did have a lasting impact however. As we’ve seen, there’s still a great deal of prejudice within the country. Likely, Spain would have fewer problems with homophobia today had it not been for Franco and his long-lasting regime. Franco did a handful of things to repress rather than promote equal rights among homosexuals. First, he restored power to the Catholic Church. Second he passed several laws, for example the Vagrancy act which criminalized homosexuality, that made homosexuality viewed very negatively (“Timeline of LGBT Rights and Social Acceptance”). As we’ve noted, laws have a greater sphere of influence than just the legislative or criminal sectors. The message behind laws very much shapes believes of the citizens who must abide by them. We saw this to be true with the legalization of gay marriage as well. After the law was passed, tolerance of homosexuality grew. So if we look at this logic with respect to Franco’s laws, we can expect just the opposite: that the passage of his laws which put homosexuality in a very negative light likely led his citizens to align their beliefs with his discriminatory laws.
Another important aspect to note is that although laws can be reversed relatively swiftly, it takes much longer for people’s opinions and beliefs to do the same. Despite several laws being passed which support equal rights of homosexuals, such as the decriminalization of homosexuality and the legalization of gay marriage, prejudice still presents itself. The discriminatory ideals that Franco imposed have long eclipsed his rule. It’s interesting to speculate about if Spain had not been ruled for decades under a fascist dictator, where would the nation be today?
Perhaps the answer is that an even higher percentage of the population would say that homosexuality should be accepted by society. Even though had it not been for Franco Spain might be more tolerant, we must recognize the efforts the country has taken against prejudice. Spain has undeniably come a long way since the decline of Franco, and that was only about 40 years ago. Since then, Spain has made remarkable strides towards equality in regard to both legislation and societal views. Even though it might be closer to complete tolerance had it not been for Franco, Spain’s progress with respect for equality despite the setback perhaps makes it an even more remarkable success story.
The case study of Spain’s unique route to becoming what is today the most tolerant country in the world shows many important facets of homophobia in the modern world. I’ve looked at how homophobia was instilled in Spanish society by Franco and his regime. I also took a detailed look at legal and societal ways of combating this homophobia. For example, the legalization of gay marriage and the various social media campaigns used to raise awareness to discrimination based on sexual orientation. And yet, even in the most tolerant country in the world, despite legislation supporting equality, hate crimes and discrimination are very real issues. It goes to show that the fight for equality is never really over.
More importantly, it is a fight that no one is giving up on easily. Spain is still taking very many progressive steps to continually strive for LGBT equality. On of these steps happened in Catalonia in October of 2016. A law was passed in the northeast region of Catalonia that prohibits the long held stigmatizing practice of mandatory psychiatric evaluations before an individual could undergo a medical sex change surgery. Many felt that due to the mandatory psychiatric test, it made desiring a sex change seem like a mental disorder (“Catalonia drops psychiatric test for transexuals”). This is one very recent example demonstrating that the fight for equality in Spain is unceasing, at least at this point in time.
Of course Spain isn’t the only country that still encounters the hostility of homophobia. What can this case study tell us about other countries in the world that are trying to eliminate homophobia themselves? In Spain we saw a combination of legislative and social change in the face of homophobia. An alternative to these methods proposed by the United Kingdom in 2011 was to cut aid to all countries that still criminalize homophobia (“Creating Closets Or Communities?”). This was essentially an ultimatum for these countries; either change your laws or help is gone. It sounds like an okay plan on paper, but like many laws, isn’t really that helpful when in effect. The distinction between homosexual and heterosexual, though it seems very clear cut to us Westerners, is not that unwavering in African cultures. The distinction is much more fluid. This way of instituting change ineffective because it does not take into account the inherently different views of homosexuality that exist between Western and African ways of thinking, and may in fact even impose the restrictive categorizations of “homosexual” and “heterosexual” upon these nations, imposing greater discrimination.
Though it may be difficult to watch countries and their citizens struggle with inequality, the interference of the UK in other countries is one example of why one country should not impose its views upon another. The success story of Spain shows what countries are capable of. Despite the repressive authoritarian rule of Francisco Franco for many years, Spain is now the most tolerant country in the world. Spain has not accomplished any of its strides in the fight for equality and tolerance with help from anyone other than their own people and government. This demonstrates that rather than one country assuming the role of human rights arbiter, it might be better to leave these responsibilities to the societies themselves.
In Spain, the struggle for equality is one that’s been going on for decades. But there is hope that with the combination of past and continuing efforts, one day the manifestations of homophobia we see today will not exist at all.
Text and Video Sources:
“The Global Divide on Homosexuality.” PewResearchCenter, 4 June 2013,http://www.pewglobal.org/2013/06/04/the-global-divide-on-homosexuality/.
“Timeline of LGBT Rights and Social Acceptance.” LGBT in Spain, Accessed 20 Oct. 2016, http://lgbtinspain.weebly.com/timeline.html
Urra, Susana. “Homophobic attacks rising in Madrid region, says rights group.” El Pais, 2 May 2016, http://elpais.com/elpais/2016/04/27/inenglish/1461748967_907029.html.
Sammie. “Gay in Spain.” SpainExpat, 22 Aug. 2008, http://www.spainexpat.com/spain/information/gay_in_spain/.
Fontanella, James. ”Spain Revolts Against Gay Marriage Law.” OhmyNews, 20 June 2005, http://english.ohmynews.com/articleview/article_view.asp?menu=c10400&no=232724&rel_no=1.
“#ConLaVozBienAlta - FELGTB.” Youtube, uploaded by Federación Estatal LGTB FELGTB, 29 Sept. 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dAb_xYVNHOM.
“The Second Spanish Republic.” DonQuijote. Don Quijote Salamanca S.L. Web. 28 Oct. 2016. <http://www.donquijote.org/culture/spain/history/second-spanish-republic>
“Spanish parliament legalizes gay marriage.” NBC News, 30 June 2005, http://www.nbcnews.com/id/8413036/ns/world_news/t/spanish-parliament-legalizes-gay-marriage/#.WBOYueErKRt.
“Catalonia drops psychiatric test for transexuals.” Progressive Spain, 25 Oct 2016, http://progressivespain.com/2016/10/25/catalonia-drops-psychiatric-test-for-transexuals/.
“Spain’s parliament legalises gay marriages.” Youtube, uploaded by AP Archive, 21 July 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fRxLAXMdSMQ
“Celebrations and protests as Spain legalises gay marriages.” Youtube, uploaded by AP Archive, 21 July 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GG3PqA949sE
“Homophobic hate crimes on the rise, UN human rights chief warns.” Youtube, uploaded by United Nations, 17 May 2011,https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DxAAvsOwn4E
“Catalonia passes historic anti-homophobia law.” EUObserver, 6 Oct. 2014, https://euobserver.com/justice/125904.
“Catalonia passes controversial anti-homophobia legislation.” El Pais, 2 Oct. 2014, http://elpais.com/elpais/2014/10/02/inenglish/1412265110_900336.html.
“Homophobia is the most common hate crime in Spain.” Typically Spanish, 15 April 2015, http://www.typicallyspanish.com/news-spain/national/Homophobia_is_the_most_common_hate_crime_in_Spain.shtml.
“A Brief History of Homosexuality and LGBTQ rights in Spain.” Vassar College, 21 April 2012, http://pages.vassar.edu/envisioningspainsborder/?p=1509.
“Dear America: Some advice from a country where gay marriage has been legal for a decade.” Quartz, 5 July 2015, http://qz.com/438786/america-take-it-from-a-country-where-gay-marriage-is-legal-celebrate-now-then-get-back-to-work/.
“60% of homosexuals suffer discrimination at work.” 20 Minutos, 29 April 2014, http://www.20minutos.es/noticia/2125295/0/homofobia/discriminacion/trabajador-homosexual/.
“About Workplace Pride.” Workplacepride.org, 2015, http://workplacepride.org/about-2/.
“#StopTheSlurs: Give anti-LGBT language the boot.” Glaad.org, 2014, https://www.glaad.org/worldcup.
Thornbury, Bonnie. “Creating Closets Or Communities? Homosexuality, Homophobia, And Processes Of Change In Africa.” Undercurrent 9.1 (2012): 60-69. Academic Search Complete. Web. 4 Oct. 2016. (No URL, found in an online database)
Eytan, Ted. “Madrid Pride Orgullo 2015 58361.” Flickr, July 1, 2015, www.flickr.com/photos/taedc/19339423131/in/photolist-vsXAHR-9ZJR1o-9ZqeMN-byJzhv-8hj7yk-nYWjLn-nWQye1-coWNPG-3mvZsj-oe8qjt-ofrgL2-nXzbXL-d591es-o3rDf2-52smDj-52sjCJ-odUJ42-nWc8da-9ZJQcb-RHCqp-vTTAs9-exCdCd-8gRnFS-9ZKeGj-coVKuJ-vTTEHU-9ZJSUs-8j1fqi-2XJScj-coVLAb-52o3uV-coVWBb-nWqp9K-bkPGVG-52o7WB-52o5cX-eSoSaq-52o5N8-nWqqsX-nWq6D5-52sm4G-odAofY-odUG6e-9FWd6t-52o4ni-odAPZJ-a6BM2e-52nYPz-52o16M-fCf1MJ
Tajuelo, Antonio. “Orgullo Gay 2011.” Flickr, July 2, 2011, www.flickr.com/photos/antoniotajuelo/5923561372/in/photolist-a2rNqu-odUKqv-cnuLKL-52nZ7M-52sgvj-8hN2Xk-8gNVmt-7jNwDD-7wkiMp-8fEyZ7-coVQuj-2NEE2F-8hRhbC-a2rJqE-vBTX77-8iL8Yg-EU3sk-8hN4Wv-fNCf4N-8hqf9T-vb2THL-5QwRLc-8fE79b-uvuPDN-8hRfES-52o67e-ofFMbg-52sf5o-9d4YqE-nZB9Vz-oe4RPw-obCqw3-8hQ7pq-52sgMG-52siK1-52o7bH-nWaKdT-o4Timj-coVY8J-ohUrSw-nWb7KE-52shnU-52o6mX-nWaDD4-fBZES8-coWPah-52nZrK-odR3Kq-52o1og-52sgbU
Historic image of Franco. Diari La Republica, June 30, 2016, www.larepublicacheca.com/el-morell-retira-el-titol-dalcalde-perpetu-al-dictador-franquista/
Otis Historical Archives National Museum of Health and Medicine. “Reeve041476.” Flickr, July 9, 2008, www.flickr.com/photos/27337026@N03/2653489628
Prime Minister of Spain Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero. Wikipedia Commons, 20 Sept. 2010, commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jos%C3%A9_Luis_Rodr%C3%ADguez_Zapatero_pronuncia_un_discurso_en_la_sede_de_la_ONU.jpg
Workplace Pride Logo. Workplace Pride, No Date, workplacepride.org
Franco with Rainbow Flag Behind Him. Vice Images, No Date, vice-images.vice.com/images/content-images-crops/2015/11/25/franquista-gay-reconvertido-492-body-image-1448471216-size_1000.jpg?resize=*:*&output-quality=
Soy Humano. Pinterest, No Date, s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/564x/b3/66/0b/b3660bf4520530d842e60591c01524d2.jpg
Eytan, Ted. “Madrid Pride Orgullo 2015 58503.” Flickr, July 2, 2015,
Global Acceptance of Homosexuality Map. Pew Reseach Center, June 4, 2013, www.pewglobal.org/2013/06/04/global-acceptance-of-homosexuality/